Arba Cielo
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More Trees:Dunedin Trees A, B-E, F-M, N-Z.

Other Trees:
Canterbury Trees, Seasons 2007-08, Seasons 2008-09

The plantings at Arba Cielo 1996-2007:
Deciduous A-F, Deciduous G-P, Deciduous Q-Z, Evergreen, Conifers, Seasons 2004-06,
Seasons 2006-07,
Seasons 2007-08
9 June 2007
2 October 2006
Seasonal Notes 2004-06
Below are recent notes relating to seasonal effects on vegetation. A longer period of record may be viewed in the file named "Garden Notes" in the Public Files folder named "Arba Cielo". Link at top of this page.

3 January 2004

One specimen of
Acer rubrum west of the largest pond has, as usual at this time of year, been taking on reddish purple foliage colour over the past few weeks. It’s in an area of quite wet ground but it’s the only one of 3 Acer rubrum seedlings in that same line of wet ground that colours this way.

In peak flower now:
Escallonia, Philadelphus, Telopea “Burgundy”, Cistus, Brachyglottis greyii, Cornus kousa “Southern Cross”, some of the larger growing Hebes (not H. salicifolia), all roses, Pelargoniums in the greenhouse.

Past peak but still effective: Russell lupins and foxgloves.

Flowers opening on some
Phormium tenax (nowhere near as many flowering as last year).

Peach in greenhouse is being damaged by a sap sucking insect - probably mites, though a miticide spray used a couple of weeks ago has not stopped the problem. Spray reapplied today.

Pond east of nursery dried out early last month, a little earlier than usual. Drying winds and below average rainfall are becoming an issue for concern in the nursery.

18 January 2004

Now in peak flower:
Lavatera “Barnsley”, all roses, Phormium tenax, Philadelphus, Hebe salicifolia, Olearia haastii, Delphinium, Spirea japonica “Anthony Waterer” and Abelia schumannii.

Today was the warmest day of the summer so far - max 27°C. Strong wind is making the ground critically dry. Watered most of the Spring planted trees, though none are wilting. A few large Hebe salicifolia are showing early signs of moisture stress, so they also were watered today.

Discovered the hares are biting through a few of the plastic mesh tree guards.

7 February 2004

Strong wind this week broke a branch off the largest
Acer rubrum “October Glory”. Conditions continue drier than average. Leaking pond east of nursery is fully dry. Two other ponds have dropped about 50cm - as usual for this time of year. Pond above the garden shed has dropped about15cm.

In flower now: roses,
Lavatera “Barnsley”, Spirea “Anthony Waterer”, Fuchsia hybrids, big white daisy, yarrow, thistles, Hypericum “Sungold”, Astilbe, Ligularia dentataDesdemona”, Buddleja davidii,
Hydrangea macrophylla, H. quercifolia, Dahlia, Cotinus coggygria
orange llily in pot. Hebe salicifolia reached floral peak about 2 wks ago but still some flowers.

Flush of autumn colour in some
Aesculus glabra, Euonymus “Red Cascade”, Acer rubrum “October Glory” and a few other Acer rubrum seedlings. One west of the main pond wall is close to peak colour - full purple with a few red leaves.

15 February 2004

Flowers opening on
Eucryphia glutinosa.

2 March 2004

Last month was the coldest summer month I’ve recorded anywhere - av max 16ºC. Rainfall ended up substantially above average at 162.6mm. At or near gale force winds on 2 occassions damaged the largest
Acer rubrum “October Glory” twice, snapped a 2m high Pinus pinaster at ground level, and snapped a 2m Cupressus macrocarpa half way where canker or another disease had affected the trunk. Many 2yo Pinus radiata, most of the Pinus pinaster, an Ulmus glabra “Horizontalis” and a few 2 - 3yo poplars have required staking.

Many deciduous potted trees are now in full autumn colour.
Acer rubrum seedlings opposite studio are at or near colour peak as is the normally early colouring specimen below the pond. Many other red maples have some coloured leaves. The largest “October Glory” is about 30% deep red. Acer saccharum ssp Nigrum near studio is about 50% coloured orange with trace of red. Acer grandidentata in the nursery bed is well coloured. A few Euonymus yedoensis are well coloured deep red. Some colour in Ulmus “Frontier”, Prunus “Conradinae”, the largest Celtis occidentalis, grafted Acer pseudolatanus and some Fraxinus americana.

Flowers on Clethra fargesii.

A 1m high Nothofagus fusca has substantially died back over the last month and a 1m high Acer saccharum ssp Nigrum west of the old rock quarry suddenly died for no clear reason.

9 March 2004

Olearia avicennifolia in peak flower. Flowers also on Hypericum “Sungold” and one Hoheria sextylosa, orange flowering bulb, & Colchicum. Also in flower now: Abelia schumannii, Spirea japonica “Anthony Waterer”, Fuchsia magellanica and garden hybrid fuchsias. American birches B.lenta, B. lutea & B.papyrifera are about 10 to 20% coloured. Acer saccharum ssp Nigrum near studio is close to peak colour - excellect red-orange. Most Acer rubrum displaying some foliage colour - 2 east of old Douglas firs are near peak. Some colour in Liquidamber “Worplesdon”, some Fraxinus latifolia and a few F. pennsylvanica. Prunus conradinae about 70% coloured.

28 March 2004

Flowering now:
Crinodendron (just a few flowers), oriental lily in front of cabin, modern roses, Abelia schumannii, Spirea “Anthony Waterer”, Olearia avicennifolia, Fuchsia magellanica, garden fuchsias and most Hoheria sextylosa.

Autumn colour progressing through most
Acer rubrum. Betula lutea, B. lenta, and some B. papyrifera at colour peak. Substantial colour on some Amelanchier lamarkii/arborea around main pond and below dam wall. Some good red colour in 2 Acer saccharum below cabin and Quercus rubra near garden shed.

5 April 2004

Acer rubrum, & Betula lenta now at or past peak colour. Most Quercus rubra, Q. imbricaria, grafted Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula populifolia, B. papyrifera, B. ermanii “Grayswood Hill”, many Acer saccharum & Euonymus “Red Cascade” substantially coloured. Some Euonymus yedoensis fully coloured. Prunus “Conradinae”, a few Acer rubrum & Betula papyfifera now leafless.

17 April 2004

Most deciduous trees now at or near peak colour. Aspens (except those near summit - only starting to colour), sugar maples, and
Sorbus prattii showing best colour ever. Photographed Acer rubrum “October Glory” a few days ago. Photos of Populus tremuloides, Sorbus sargentiana, Betula papyrifera, Prunus (seedling origin) east of cabin, many seedling Acer rubrum & Acer saccharum taken today. Good yellow colour in sycamores - better than most years. Amelanchier lamarkii/arborea also better - more red - than most years.

First air frost of the year on April 7, heavy frost on April 8 (-1.5°C at cabin, -2.5°C at lowest contour), and a week of wintery weather may explain this season’s fine colour display.

9 May 2004

Now in peak leaf colour:
Liquidamber “Worplesdon”, Oxydendron arboreum, Larix decidua & Larix kaempferi, some Betula pubescens/alba, some B. platyphylla v. japonica, a few seedling cherries. Some coloured foliage remaining on many other trees. Most Populus “Tasman” about 30% coloured dull yellow.

Flowers now on a few asters.

Wind damage through the past week:
Cunninghamia lanceolata lost approx one third of its height - the top completely snapped off.

22 May 2004

Flowers opening on one of the oldest
Gevuina avellana. Other flowers: HT roses, asters, and callendulas.

Autumn foliage: Populus “Tasman” (mostly dull yellow & green, but a few brighter specimens). Peak colour: One Acer rubrum “October Glory” , a few Nothofagus obliqua, Prunus serrulata seedlings near lower mid-east pond, the below graft growth on Sorbus aucuparia seedlings that were hard pruned last winter in prep for grafting, deciduous Cotoneaster near studio, young Acer platanoides and Quercus rubra in nursery beds, some birches near garden shed and elsewhere, most Betula platyphylla v japonica in nursery bed, a few late Populus “Eridano” near garden shed, many Larix kaempferi, Stephanandra tanakae & Mespilus. Cotinus “Grace” close to peak colour.

Substantial foliage colour:
Spirea nipponica “Snowmound”, Spirea cantoniensis (?) in front of cabin yard, some late Amelanchier lamarkii/arborea, Liquidamber “Palo Alto”, many other Nothofagus obliqua, pussy willows, Sorbus hupehensis, the oldest Nyssa sinensis, some late Euonymus yedoensis, Cornus “Eddie’s White Wonder”, deciduous cotoneasters in nursery & cabin areas, and Eucryphia glutinosa.

Discovered a 2m high Cupressus macrocarpa on mid-west boundary blown over by easterly wind. It had early been windblown from W and I attempted to correct it with stake and tie support.

Collected best ever quantity of hazel nuts (a 500g margarine container full) - almost all from the “Whiteheart” specimen near front gate.

20 June 2004

Remaining leaf colour: substantial yellow in
Salix “Kinuyanagi” & Populus “Pakai” + much green foliage. Substantial foliage remaining on poplars “Veronese” and “Kawa” but little autumnal colour. Plenty of red leaves still on Berberis thunbgergii “Atropurpurea” and Liquidamber “Palo Alto”. Substantial red & orange leaves on Photinia beauverdiana. A handful of red-orange leaves remaining on the oldest Nyssa sinensis.

2 September 2004

Grafted cherries and rowans.

13 September 2004

Ribes sanguineum, Azara microphylla, one pussy willow, dwarf peach in greenhouse & Acer rubrum “October Glory” flowering. Some flowers on Acacia baileyana & a few Forsythia. A few daffodils blooming on summit. Flowers opening on orchid in cabin. Leaves emerging on Nothofagus obliqua, Fuchsia excorticata, Cotoneaster, all Larix, Physocarpus luteus, Deutzia, all Viburnums, some Euonymus yedoensis and Betula papyrifera. Most Spirea well advanced in leaf emergence.

A couple of shrubs on summit knocked over by wind in recent months -
Pittosporum tenuifolium & Grevillea victoriae. Another Pinus pinaster also knocked over.

27 September 2004

“Tai Haku” at floral peak. P. “Shirotae” close to peak.

3 November 2004

Laburnums, Amelanchier alnifolia, Spirea at north end of cabin garden, Daphne x burkwoodii, forget-me-nots, & Malus “Dayton” at floral peak. Minor frost damage to Oxydendron, Celtis occidentalis and small Rhodoendrons. Malus floribunda close to floral peak. Some flowers open on Syringa vulgaris, Ceanothus roweanus, and Malus “Gorgeous”. First flower ever open on a seedling Rhododendron below cabin (white).

Canadian pondweed (Elodea canadensis) is choking the 2 largest ponds.

7 November 2004.

Most deciduous azaleas,
Prunus “Pink Perfection”, P. “Ko Fugen”, Syringa vulgaris, & Cornus stolonifera “Flaviramea” at peak bloom. First flower ever on Magnolia “Heaven Scent” (minimal fragrance).

14 November 2004.

Prunus “Shimidsu Sakura”, Cornus baileyi, Viburnum Mariesii”, Crinodendron hookerianum, Telopea “Burgundy”, and Chilean fire bush at floral peak. This season’s one and only flower open on Magnolia “Athene”.

Some flowers open on
Rhododendron “Anna Rose Whitney”. R. “Purple Splendour” in full bloom.

Shoot dieback observed in a couple of
Prunus avium, one seedling cherry, and 2 Prunus “Shirotae”.

25 December 2004.

Flowers continuing on peonies. Peak flowering on rose “Bantry Bay”, just a few flowers open on the rose “Wedding Day”, some flowers on most other roses. Also in flower: fuchsias, Olearia macrodonta, many of the garden varieites of Hebe, foxgloves and Russell lupins.

Some minor frost damage to new foliage on smaller Rhododendrons. Premature autumn colour on several Acer rubrum - quite bright on a couple behind Populus “Yeogi 1”. More wind damage to Acer rubrum “Columnare”.

26 January 2005.

First flowers on Strelizia (in greenhouse) and a seedling Callistemon citrinus. Wind damage over past 3 wks to branches on 2 Acer rubrum “October Glory”. Major limb damage to 2 pussy willows. A good crop of peaches in greenhouse, some ripe, most near ripe. Roses still blooming well - “Wedding Day” just past its peak. Some healthy new growth under way on most deciduous trees. A 2m high Nothofagus solandri “Cliffortoides” has died within the past 3 weeks near the studio car park - the ground there has been waterlogged for months. Currants and cherries have almost all been taken by birds.

5 March 2005.

Another willow in wet ground has fallen. One 3yo
Pinus radiata has died high up slope from the cabin - prob root damage from wind last Spring (it was tied to a stake). Substantial browning of foliage in one Cupressus “Green Spire” below front gate, but new growth is healthy. Started removing ties from pines. Flowers starting to open on one Gevuina. Flowers continuing on HT roses, Cistus, and Fuchsias. Many autumn leaves on Acer saccharum ssp Nigrum near studio. Noticed a dead possum on roadside about 2km E of my place.

26 March 2005.

Recently noticed 2 more trees knocked over by wind: a 2m high
Pinus pinaster above old rock quarry and a 2m high golden willow in stream above main pond.

Substantial autumn colour on some
Betula papyrifera, B. lutea, a few Euonymus yedoensis, a few Acer rubrum.

Herbicided gorse throughout lower property over past few wks & started up top.

Good flowering continues on modern rose and oriental lily.

18 APRIL 2005.

Noticed another important shelter tree knocked over by wind 2 wks ago: a 3m high Cupressus “Naylor’s Blue”.

At or near peak autumn colour now: many Acer rubrum, incl the largest “Autumn (October) Glory”; Betula “Grayswood Hill”, some Betula lenta, many Euonymus yedoensis, many Quercus rubra, most Betula papyrifera & B.papyrifera “Commutata”; Spirea japonica “Anthony Waterer”, many Acer saccharum. Substantial colour in Spirea nipponica “Snowmound”, Acer pseudoplatanus (smallest grafted form in nursery bed), some Acer platanoides, most Betula populifolia, many Betula alba/pubescens, Populus grandidentata/tremuloides, P.balsamifera, Malus tschonskii, Sorbus sargentiana, Betula platyphylla, Nothofagus antarctica, Salix Daphnoides, Fothergilla gardenii & F. major, Ulmus sp beside first pond north of main pond.

30 APRIL 2005.

Peak colour now at its most widespread -
Acer saccharum, many Acer platanoides, many Acer rubrum, many birches, Quercus rubra.

18 MAY 2005.

Peak colour on most
Amelanchier lamarkii/arborea/canadensis, Malus tschonoskii, Parrotia persica, Quercus coccinea, Q. ellipsoidalis, Acer grosserii, a few late Eounymus yedoensis & a few Quercus rubra (most finished). Many birches and Larix kaempferi at or past colour peak. The last of the Acer rubrum “Autumn Glory” (one near cabin and one most west of the studio). Some colour in many Populus “Tasman”, a few P.“Veronese”. Outstanding colour on a couple of Acer platanoides high above the cabin (most other Norway maples bare or near so). Deciduous cotoneasters colouring reasonably well.

19 MAY 2005.

Peak colour on elms, some
Quercus robur, Prunus “Tai Haku”. Substantial colour on Prunus “Shirotae”.

26 JUNE 2005.

Still some attractive orange foliage on many
Nothofagus obliqua. Foliage and some colour persists on a few Prunus serrulata. Substantial foliage, much of it coloured, on Spirea cantoniensis.

26 AUGUST 2005.

First Rhododendrons flowering this week, incl "Cornubia". Two pink unidentified Rhodos in cabin garden suffered flower damage from frost this morning. Leaves opening on most Spirea, Plagianthus, Populus balsamifera, Euonymus yedoensis, Berberis. Leaves and flowers on plums. Tree planting continues

9 November 2005.
Unknown Rhododendron in Cabin garden, 23 August 2005.
Russell Lupins and buttercups beside the big pond, 3 Nov 2005.
Rhododendron "Cornubia" 23 August 2005
Russell lupins on the second dam wall, 20 Nov 2005.
A Rhododendron I grew from seed flowers for the first time on the summit, 11 Sept 2005.
19 JANUARY 2006

A relatively gentle Spring and often warm early summer encouraged the best growth ever on many trees. Since Dec 22 typical Spring conditions have set in with frequent strong winds, mostly cold days and over 300mm of rain. Autumn colour is entering many Acer rubrum and Euonymus yedoensis, many 3 to 4yo Pinus radiata are leaning, one was snapped off at ground level. All Pinus pinaster and a few Pinus contorta are also increasing their deviation from the vertical. Several Ostyra carpinifolia are unstable and had to be severely pruned. One Hoheria sextylosa close to the big pond is dying from wet soil conditions. A depressing time that makes me homesick for hot summers and drought!

28 MARCH 2006

A break at last from cold, windy, wet weather. Some good autumn colour here - for the first time in a couple of trees that have been here for years (Carya ovata and Cladrastus lutea). Some Acer rubrum, Betula papyrifera, Sorbus aria and some Acer saccharum are the best performers so far. Most trees produce better colour with each passing year, though many still leave a lot to be desired. Rust has affected Populus balsamifera, as usual. More wind damage this past growing season than previously observed - perhaps just because the trees are getting bigger. Significant branch damage to a few willows, & a few Acer rubrum. A few pines and Cupressus macrocarpa flattened. Two Nothofagus cliffortoides died in waterlogged soil.

27 Jan 2006. Acer rubrum "Autumn Glory" producing early leaf colour, probably due to wet soil conditions.
Seedling Prunus sp, 1 April 2006.
Sycamores, birches and aspens colour the gorse patch on 16 April 2006. The brightest yellow is an aspen, probably Populus grandidentata.
Above: 24 April 2006. Aspen sourced from the "Top Trees" nursery. Some orange & red tones.

Right: 29 April 2006. The same form of Aspen in the old rock quarry at colour peak.

4 Acer rubrum provide the brightest colour beside the big pond on 16 April 2006.
1 MAY 2006

Autumn colours this year not as bright as last year for some trees, notably elms in Dunedin and here. Larches soon to peak. Acer rubrum "Autumn Glory" below the front gate are at their colour peak now. Grafted sycamore peaked ove the past week - more orange than last year. Some colour in "Tasman" and "Veronese" poplars, most aspens are past peak colour. Some Acer saccharum better than ever.

1 May 2006: 2 Acer rubrum "Autumn Glory" below front gate.
14 MAY 2006

Colour peaking on Acer circinatum x palmatum, Nyssa sinensis, Quercus robur, Liquidamber "Palo Alto". Golden willows, Populus "Veronese" , Populus "Tasman", Larix kaempferi nearing peak colour. Dull yellow colour for poplars & willows, a good orange for the larches. Several Prunus serrulata colouring well.

15 May 2006 - Acer rubrum (FW Schumacher seed source) near cabin.
14 May 2006 - Liquidamber "Palo Alto" beside the big pond. Better colour than last year.
14 May 2006 - Golden willow & Populus "Veronese"
28 May 2006 - Larix kaempferi.
10 JUNE 2006

The last autumn foliage: late Prunus serrulata, Nothofagus obliqua, Stephanandra, Cotinus "Grace", Ulmus "Frontier", Populus "Pakai". Some colour also on Salix "Kinuyinagi". A few late Acer rubrum & Quercus rubra showing good red. A few Pyrus pashia colouring. Populus "Kawa" mostly in full leaf with a hint of colour.
10 June 2006: waterfall with Nothofagus obliqua beyond. One of the last Prunus serrulata to colour, 10 June 2006.
Nothofagus obliqua grove, 10 June 2006.
Populus "Pakai", 12 June 2006.
26 JUNE 2006

The second ice sheet to form on the big pond in a week. Frost building up like a light snowfall in the shaded places after 3 consecutive freezing nights.

Swallows have been absent since the first extrensive ice sheet formed on the big pond on June 19. Up to about 20 of them had been observed over the pond on preceding weeks.

2 JULY 2006.

2 wks of temperatures below 6°C and as low as
-4°C. Ponds ice covered for the past week but starting to thaw today. Two swallows have returned to the big pond.

9 JULY 2006

Strong wind on July 8 knocked over half a 6m Pinus radiata - possibly a good reason for heeding the often stated forester's advice to remove secondary leaders on these trees while they're small .

Commenced planting out trees from the nursery bed - starting with Plagianthus regius.

The big pond, late afternoon on 26 June 2006 - almost complete ice cover. Same day below, frost thickening impressively on hillside
The gorse patch, late afternoon, 26 June 2006.
July 10.
22 August 2006 - the heaviest snowfall observed by me so far this year: 3cm.
3 Sept 2006 - the first Rhodo to flower on this property, variety unknown.
17 SEPTEMBER 2006.

Flowering now: Forsythia, cherry plum, Acer rubrum, and Ribes sanguineum are at their peak. Acacia dealbata and Acacia rubida are close to peak. Many flowers on Prunus "Awanui". Some flowers on Prunus yedoensis, a P. subhirtella seedling and P. "Accolade".
New leaves expanding: Betula papyrifera, Populus maximowicii, Nothofagus obliqua, Physocarpus, Ribes sanguineum, Plagianthus regius, Larix kaempferi, Deutzia.

17 Sept 2006. Hail on the ground after a heavy hail shower on a day of sleet and hail, with snow to about 350m
Forsythia at peak bloom, 11 Sept 2006.
Spirea thunbergii, 24 Sept 2006

Prunus seedling, 24 Sept 2006
24 Sept 2006. A seedling Rhododendron flowers for the first time below the cabin.
1 Oct 2006. Amelanchiers flowering, new fliage on Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera & Plagianthus regius.
Amelanchier lamarkii, 27 Sept 2006
2 October 2006. Rhododendron "Dora Amateus".
2 October 2006. Colourful new foliage on poplars "Veronese" and "Tasman". Larix kaempferi bright green.
7 October 2006. Prunus "Shirotae" at peak bloom.
A 4cm snowfall on 10 October 2006.